Clinical Research Conducted on Capsaicin and Cayenne Pepper

A significant amount of clinical research has been conducted on cayenne pepper and capsacin, its secondary metabolite or active ingredient.

In fact, according to Dr. Patrick Quillin (1998) in his book, The Healing Power of Cayenne Pepper, there have been over 3,000 studies done on capsaicin and cayenne (p. 6).

That's an astonishing figure. Below is an amalgam of various studies I've come across and that others have done.

I hope it helps you see that cayenne is not a "fad" and that it has garnered a lot of interest not only among health enthusiasts but among the medical community as well.

Most of the studies have been related to the topical application of capsaicin, but many here involve cayenne pepper itself as well.

Research Conducted on Cayenne Pepper and/or Capsaicin

Aasvang EK, Hansen JB, Malmstrøm J, Asmussen T, Gennevois D, Struys MM, Kehlet H. The effect of wound instillation of a novel purified capsaicin formulation on postherniotomy pain: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg. 2008 Jul;107(1):282-91. PMID: 18635499.

Abdel Salam OM, Moszik G, Szolcsanyi J. Studies on the effect of intragastric capsaicin on gastric ulcer and on the prostacyclin-induced cytoprotection in rats. Pharmacol Res. 1995;32:209-215.  

Agrawal RC, Wiessler M, Hecker E, et al. Tumour-promoting effect of chilli extract in BALB/c mice. Int J Cancer 1986;38(5):689-695.

Ahuja KD, Robertson IK, Geraghty DP, Ball MJ. Effects of chilli consumption on postprandial glucose, insulin, and energy metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(1):63-9.  

Ahuja KD, Ball MJ. Effects of daily ingestion of chilli on serum lipoprotein oxidation in adult men and women. Br J Nutr. 2006;96(2):239-42. 

Ahuja KD, Robertson IK, Geraghty DP, Ball MJ. The effect of 4-week chilli supplementation on metabolic and arterial function in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61(3):326-33. 

Allison DB, Fontaine KR, Heshka S, Mentore JL, Heymsfield SB. Alternative treatments for weight loss: a critical review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2001;41(1):1-28; discussion 39-40. 

Alper BS, Lewis PR. Treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a systematic review of the literature. J Fam Pract. 2002;51:121-128. 

Athanasiou A., et al. Vanilloid receptor agonists and antagonists are mitochondrial inhibitors: how vanilloids cause non-vanilloid receptor mediated cell death. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 Mar 2; 354(1): 50-55. 

Attal N. Chronic neuropathic pain: mechanisms and treatment [Review]. Clin J Pain 2000;16(3 Suppl):S118-30. 

Baumann TK, Burchiel KJ, Ingram SL, et al. Responses of adult human dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture to capsaicin and low pH. Pain 1996;65(1):31-38.  

Bernstein JE, Bickers DR, Dahl MV, Roshal JY. Treatment of chronic postherpetic neuralgia with topical capsaicin. A preliminary study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987 Jul;17(1):93-6. PMID: 3611458. 

Bernstein JE, Parish LC, Rapaport M, et al. Effects of topically applied capsaicin on moderate and severe psoriasis vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15:504-507. 

Biesbroeck R, Bril V, Hollander P, Kabadi U, Schwartz S, Singh SP, Ward WK, Bernstein JE. A double-blind comparison of topical capsaicin and oral amitriptyline in painful diabetic neuropathy. Adv Ther. 1995 Mar-Apr;12(2):111-20. PMID: 10150323. 

Biro T, Brodie C, Modarres S, et al. Specific vanilloid responses in C6 rat glioma cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1998;56(1-2):89-98.

Bortolotti M, Coccia G, Grossi G, Miglioli M. The treatment of functional dyspepsia with red pepper. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Jun;16(6):1075-82. PMID: 12030948. 

Bouraoui A, Toumi A, Mustapha HB, et al. Effects of capsicum fruit on theophylline absorption and bioavailability in rabbits. Drug-Nutrient Interact. 1988;5:345-350. 

Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000:52-56. 

Chaiyata P, Puttadechakum S, Komindr S. Effect of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) ingestion on plasma glucose response and metabolic rate in Thai women.J Med Assoc Thai. 2003 Sep;86(9):854-60. 10. 11. 12.  

Chitra S, Viswanathan P, Nalini N, et al. Role of red chilli (Capsaicin) in the formation of colonic carcinoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 1997;40(1):21-25.  

Chueh PJ, Morre DJ, Wilkinson FE, et al. A 33.5-kDa heat- and protease-resistant NADH oxidase inhibited by capsaicin from sera of cancer patients. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997;342(1):38-47.  

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1549-7852, Volume 46, Issue 4, 2006, Pages 275 – 328. 

D'Alonzo AJ, Grover GJ, Darbenzio RB, et al. In vitro effects of capsaicin: antiarrhythmic and antiischemic activity. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995;272(2-3):269-278. 

Deal CL, Schnitzer TJ, Lipstein E, Seibold JR, Stevens RM, Levy MD, Albert D, Renold F. Treatment of arthritis with topical capsaicin: a double-blind trial. Clin Ther. 1991 May-Jun;13(3):383-95. PMID: 1954640. 

Dini D, Bertelli G, Gozza A, Forno GG. Treatment of the post-mastectomy pain syndrome with topical capsaicin. Pain. 1993 Aug;54(2):223-6. PMID: 8251029. 

Duke J. The Green Pharmacy. Emmaus, Pa: Rodale Press; 1997. 

Egger G, Cameron-Smith D, Stanton R. The effectiveness of popular, non-prescription weight loss supplements. Medical Journal of Australia. 1999;171(11-12):604-608. 

Ellis CN, Berberian B, Sulica VI, et al. A double-blind evaluation of topical capsaicin in pruritic psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;29:438-442 

Ellison N, Loprinzi CL, Kugler J, Hatfield AK, Miser A, Sloan JA, Wender DB, Rowland KM, Molina R, Cascino TL, Vukov AM, Dhaliwal HS, Ghosh C. Phase III placebo-controlled trial of capsaicin cream in the management of surgical neuropathic pain in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 1997 Aug;15(8):2974-80. PMID: 9256142. 

Ensminger AH, Esminger M. K. J. e. al. Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia. Clovis, California: Pegus Press; 1986 1986. PMID:15210 

Friese KH. Acute otitis media in children: a comparison of conventional and homeopathic treatment. Biomedical Therapy. 1997;15(4):462-466. 

Frucht-Pery J, Feldman ST, Brown SI. The use of capsaicin in herpes zoster ophthalmicus neuralgia. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1997 Jun;75(3):311-3. PMID: 9253983. 

Fusco BM, Giacovazzo M. Peppers and pain. The promise of capsaicin. Drugs. 1997;53(6):909-914. 

Fusco BM, Marabini S, Maggi CA, Fiore G, Geppetti P. Preventative effect of repeated nasal applications of capsaicin in cluster headache. Pain. 1994;59(3):321-325. 

Gagnier JJ, van Tulder M, Berman B, Bombardier C. Herbal medicine for low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. [Review]. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD004504. 

Gallo R, Cozzani E, Guarrera M. Sensitization to pepper (Capsicum annuum) in a latex-allergic patient. Contact Dermatitis. 1997;37(1):36-37. 

Graham DY, Anderson SY, Lang T. Garlic or jalapeno peppers for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94:1200-1202. 

Graham, DY, Smith JL, Opekun AR. Spicy food and the stomach. Evaluation by videoendoscopy. JAMA. 1988;260:3473-3475. 

Gonzalez R, Dunkel R, Koletzko B, et al. Effect of capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce suspension on upper gastrointestinal motility in healthy volunteers. Dig Dis Sci 1998 Jun;43(6):1165-71 1998. PMID:18140. 

Hail N, Lotan R. Examining the role of mitochondrial respiration in vanilloid-induced apoptosis J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:1281-1292.  

Hakas JF Jr. Topical capsaicin induces cough in patient receiving ACE inhibitor. Ann Allergy. 1990;65:322. 

Hartung M, Leah J, Zimmerman M. The excitation of cutaneous nerve endings in a neuroma by capsaicin. Brain Res 1989;499(2):363-366.  

Hautkappe M, Roizen MF, Toledano A, Roth S, Jeffries JA, Ostermeier AM. Review of the effectiveness of capsaicin for painful cutaneous disorders and neural dysfunction. [Review]. Clin J Pain. 1998;14(2):97-106. 

Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. [Review]. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57(13):1221-1227. 

Holzer P, Pabst MA, Lippe IT. Intragastric capsaicin protects against aspirin-induced lesion formation and bleeding in the rat gastric mucosa. Gastroenterology. 1989;96:1425-1433. 

Hwang JT, Park IJ, Shin JI, Lee YK, Lee SK, Baik HW, Ha J, Park OJ. Genistein, EGCG, and capsaicin inhibit adipocyte differentiation process via activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Dec 16;338(2):694-9. Epub 2005 Oct 11. PMID: 16236247. 

Jang JJ, Kim SH, Yun TK. Inhibitory effect of capsaicin on mouse lung tumor development. In Vivo 1989;3(1):49-53.  

Jensen PG, Larson JR. Management of painful diabetic neuropathy [Review]. Drugs Aging. 2001;18(10):737-749. 

Jung MY, Kang HJ, Moon A. Capsaicin-induced apoptosis in SK-Hep-1 hepatocarcinoma cells involves Bcl-2 down regulation and caspase-3 activation. Cancer Lett 2001;165:139-145.  

Kang JY, Yeoh KG, Chia HP, Lee HP, Chia YW, Guan R, Yap I. Chili--protective factor against peptic ulcer? Dig Dis Sci. 1995 Mar;40(3):576-9. PMID: 7895548. 

Karch SB. The Consumer's Guide to Herbal Medicine. Hauppauge, New York: Advanced Research Press; 1999:57-58. 

Keitel W, Frerick H, Kuhn U, Schmidt U, Kuhlmann M, Bredehorst A. Capsicum pain plaster in chronic non-specific low back pain. Arzneimittelforschung. 2001;51:896-903. 

Kempaiah RK, Srinivasan K. Integrity of erythrocytes of hypercholesterolemic rats during spices treatment. Mol Cell Biochem 2002 Jul;236(1-2):155-61 2002. 

Kenney JK, Jamjian C, Wheeler MM. Prevention and management of pain associated with Herpes zoster. Journal of Pharmaceutical Care in Pain and Symptom Control. 1999;7(3):7-26. 

Kim JD, Kim JM, Pyo JO, et al. Capsaicin can alter the expression of tumor forming-related genes which might be followed by induction of apoptosis of a Korean stomach cancer cell line, SNU-1. Cancer Lett 1997;120(2):235-241.  

LaHann TR. Effect of capsaicin on croton oil and TPA induced tumorigenesis and inflammation. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 1986;29:145-149.  

Lee YS, Kwon EJ, Jin Da Q, et al. Redox status-dependent regulation of cyclooxygenases mediates the capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2002;21:113-120.  

Lee IO, Lee KH, Pyo JH, Kim JH, Choi YJ, Lee YC (2007). "Anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells". Helicobacter 12 (5): 510–7. doi:10.1111/j.1523-5378.2007.00521.x. PMID 17760719. 

Lee YS, Nam DH, Kim JA. Induction of apoptosis by capsaicin in A172 human glioblastoma cells. Cancer Lett 2000;161(1):121-130. 

Lim, K., et al. (1997). Dietary red pepper ingestion increases carbohydrate oxidation at rest and during exercise in runners. Retrieved from  1997 Mar;29(3):355-61. 

Leung FW. Capsaicin-sensitive intestinal mucosal afferent mechanism and body fat distribution. Life Sci. 2008 Jul 4;83(1-2):1-5. Epub 2008 May 11. PMID: 18541272. 

Lopez-Carrillo L, Hernandez Avila M, Dubrow R. Chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139(3):263-271.  

Low PA, Opfer-Gehrking TL, Dyck PJ, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the application of capsaicin cream in chronic distal painful polyneuropathy. Pain. 1995;62:163-168. 

Macho A, Blázquez MV, Navas P, et al. Induction of apoptosis by vanilloid compounds does not require de novo gene transcription and activator protein 1 activity. Cell Growth Differ 1998;9:277-286.  

Macho A, Calzado MA, Munoz-Blanco J, et al. Selective induction of apoptosis by capsaicin in transformed cells: the role of reactive oxygen species and calcium. Cell Death Differ 1999;6:155-165.  

Macho A, Lucena C, Calzado MA, et al. Phorboid 20-homovanillates induce apoptosis through a VR1-independent mechanism. Chem Biol 2000;7:483-492.  

Marks DR, Rapoport A, Padla D, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of intranasal capsaicin for cluster headache. Cephalalgia. 1993;13:114-116. 

Mathias BJ, Dillingham TR, Zeigler DN, Chang AS, Belandres PV. Topical capsaicin for chronic neck pain. A pilot study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1995 Jan-Feb;74(1):39-44. PMID: 7532951. 

McCarthy GM, McCarty DJ. Effect of topical capsaicin in the therapy of painful osteoarthritis of the hands. J Rheumatol. 1992 Apr;19(4):604-7. PMID: 1375648.

McCarty DJ, Csuka M, McCarthy, et al. Treatment of pain due to fibromyalgia with topical capsaicin: A pilot study. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1994;23(suppl 3):41-47. 

Morre DJ, Caldwell S, Mayorga A, et al. NADH oxidase activity from sera altered by capsaicin is widely distributed among cancer patients. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997;342(2):224-230.  

Morre DJ, Chueh PJ, Morre DM. Capsaicin inhibits preferentially the NADH oxidase and growth of transformed cells in culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1995;92(6):1831-1835.  

Morre DJ, Sun E, Geilen C, et al. Capsaicin inhibits plasma membrane NADH oxidase and growth of human and mouse melanoma lines. Eur J Cancer. 1996;32A(11):1995-2003.  

Mori, Akio, et al. (March 15, 2006). Capsaicin, A Component of Red Peppers, Inhibits The Growth of Androgen-Independent, p53 Mutant Prostate Cancer Cells. American Association of Cancer Research. 

Nicholas JJ. Physical modalities in rheumatological rehabilitation. Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation. 1994;75(9):994-1001.  

O'Mahony R, Al-Khtheeri H, Weerasekera D, et al. (2005). "Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori". World J. Gastroenterol. 11 (47): 7499–507. PMID 16437723. 

Paice JA, Ferrens CE, Lashley FR, Shott S, Vizgirda V, Pitrak D. Topical capsaicin in the management of HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy. J Pain Symtom Manage. 2000;19(1):45-52. 

Park KK, Chun KS, Yook JI, Surh YJ. Lack of tumor promoting activity of capsaicin, a principal pungent ingredient of red pepper, in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Anticancer Res 1998;18(6A):4201-4205.  

Park KK, Surh YJ. Effects of capsaicin on chemically-induced two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 1997;114(1-2):183-184.  

Pascual DW, Bost KL, Xu-Amano J, et al. The cytokine-like action of substance P upon B cell differentiation. Reg Immunol 1992;4(2):100-104.  

Patel PS, Varney ML, Dave BJ, et al. Regulation of constitutive and induced NF-kappaB activation in malignant melanoma cells by capsaicin modulates interleukin-8 production and cell proliferation. J Interferon Cytokine Res 2002;22(4):427-435.  

Patel PS, Yang S, Li A, Varney ML, et al. Capsaicin regulates vascular endothelial cell growth factor expression by modulation of hypoxia inducing factor-1alpha in human malignant melanoma cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2002;128(9):461-468.  

Petersen KL, Fields HL, Brennum J, Sandroni P, Rowbotham MC. Capsaicin evoked pain and allodynia in post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain. 2000;88:125-133. 

Rains C, Bryson HM. Topical Capsaicin. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy and osteoarthritis. Drugs and Aging. 1998;7(4):317-328. 

Reimann S, Luger T, Metze D. Topical administration of capsaicin in dermatology for treatment of itching and pain. Hautarzt. 2000;51:164-172. 

Robbins W. Clinical applications of capsaicinoids [Review]. Clin J Pain. 2000;16(2 Suppl):S86-89. 

Rodriguez-Stanley S, Collings KL, Robinson M, et al. The effects of capsaicin on reflux, gastric emptying and dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14:129-134. 

Rosenstein ED. Topical agents in the treatment of rheumatic disorders. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1999;25(4):899-913. 

Sambaiah K, Satyanarayana MN. Hypocholesterolemic effect of red pepper & capsaicin. Indian J Exp Biol 1980 Aug;18(8):898-9 1980. PMID:18150. 

Samid, Dvorit. (1997). Compositions and methods for treating and preventing pathologies including cancer. The USA Dept. of HHS; pg. 56. 

Sanchez AM et al. Apoptosis induced by capsaicin in prostate PC-3 cells involves ceramide accumulation, neutral sphingomyelinase, and JNK activation.Apoptosis 2007; 12(11): 2013-24. 

Satyanarayana MN (2006). "Capsaicin and gastric ulcers". Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 46 (4): 275–328. doi:10.1080/1040-830491379236. PMID 16621751. 

Scheffler NM, Sheitel PL, Lipton MN. Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy with capsaicin 0.075%. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1991 Jun;81(6):288-93. PMID: 1920093. 

Shimomura Y, Kawada T, Suzuki M. Capsaicin and its analogs inhibit the activity of NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Arch Biochem Biophys 1989;270:573-577.  

Singh S, Natarajan K, Aggarwal BB. Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a potent inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B activation by diverse agents. J Immunol 1996;157(10):4412-4420.  

Stam C, Bonnet MS, van Haselen RA. The efficacy and safety of a homeopathic gel in the treatment of acute low back pain: a multi-centre, randomised, double-blind comparative clinical trial. Br Homeopath J. 2001;90(1):21-28. 

Stander S, Luger T, Metze D. Treatment of prurigo nodularis with topical capsaicin.J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44(3):471-478. 

Stankus SJ, Dlugopolski M, Packer D. Management of herpes zoster (shingles) and postherpetic neuralgia. [Review]. Am Fam Physician. 2000;61(8):2437-44, 2447-2448. 

Surh Y. Molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive effects of selected dietary and medicinal phenolic substances. Mutat Res 1999;428(1-2):305-327.  

Surh YJ. More Than Spice: Capsaicin in Hot Chili Peppers Makes Tumor Cells Commit Suicide. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94(17):1263-1265.  

Surh YJ, Lee E, Lee JM. Chemoprotective properties of some pungent ingredient present in red pepper and ginger. Mutat Res 1998;402:259-267.  

Surh YJ, Lee RC, Park KK, et al. Chemoprotective effects of capsaicin and diallyl sulfide against mutagenesis or tumorigenesis by vinyl carbamate and N-nitrosodimethylamine. Carcinogenesis 1995;16(10):2467-2471.

Surh YJ, Lee SS. Capsaicin in hot chili pepper: carcinogen, co-carcinogen or anticarcinogen? Food Chem Toxicol 1996;34:313-316.  

Surh YJ, Lee SS.Capsaicin, a double-edged sword: toxicity, metabolism, and chemopreventive potential. Life Sci 1995;56(22):1845-1855.  

Surh YJ. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40(8):1091-1097.  

Surh YJ. Molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive effects of selected dietary and medicinal phenolic substances. Mutat Res 1999;428:305-327.  

Szallasi A, Blumberg PM. Vanilloid (capsaicin) receptors and mechanisms. Pharmacol Rev 1999;51:159-211.  

Tanaka T, Kohno H, Sakata K, et al. Modifying effects of dietary capsaicin and rotenone on 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 2002;23(8):1361-1367.  

Tandan R, Lewis GA, Krusinski PB, Badger GB, Fries TJ. Topical capsaicin in painful diabetic neuropathy. Controlled study with long-term follow-up. Diabetes Care. 1992 Jan;15(1):8-14. PMID: 1737545. 

Teel RW, Huynh HT. Lack of the inhibitory effect of intragastrically administered capsaicin on NNK-induced lung tumor formation in the A.J mouse. In Vivo. 1999;13(3):231-234.  

The Capsaicin Study Group. Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy with topical capsaicin. A multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study. Arch Intern Med. 1991 Nov;151(11):2225-9. PMID: 1953227. 

The Capsaicin Study Group. Effect of treatment with capsaicin on daily activities of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 1992;15:159-165. 

Thoennissen NH, O'Kelly J, Lu D, et al. Capsaicin causes cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in ER-positive and -negative breast cancer cells by modulating the EGFR/HER-2 pathway. Oncogene. 2010, Jan 14;29(2):285-96. 

Todd, C. Meeting the therapeutic challenge of the patient with osteoarthritis. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2002;42:74-82. 

Toth B, Gannett P. Carcinogenicity of lifelong administration of capsaicin of hot pepper in mice. In Vivo 1992;6(1):59-63.  

Yeoh KG, Kang JY, Yap I, Guan R, Tan CC, Wee A, Teng CH. Chili protects against aspirin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury in humans. Dig Dis Sci. 1995 Mar;40(3):580-3. PMID: 7895549. 

Yoshioka M., et al. (1995). Effects of red-pepper diet on the energy metabolism in men. Retrieved from J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1995 Dec;41(6):647-56. 

Volmink J, Lancaster T, Gray S, Silagy C. Treatments for postherpetic neuralgia--a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Fam Pract. 1996;13(1):84-91. 

Watson CP, Tyler KL, Bickers DR, Millikan LE, Smith S, Coleman E. A randomized vehicle-controlled trial of topical capsaicin in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Clin Ther. 1993 May-Jun;15(3):510-26. PMID: 8364943. 

Watson CP, Evans RJ. The post-mastectomy pain syndrome and topical capsaicin: a randomized trial. Pain. 1992 Dec;51(3):375-9. PMID: 1491864. 

Watson CP, Evans RJ, Watt VR. Post-herpetic neuralgia and topical capsaicin. Pain. 1988 Jun;33(3):333-40. PMID: 2458561. 

Whiting S, Derbyshire E, Tiwari BK. Capsaicinoids and capsinoids. A potential role for weight management? A systematic review of the evidence.  2012 Oct;59(2):341-8. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.05.015. Epub 2012 May 22.

Winder WW, Hardie DG. AMP-activated protein kinase, a metabolic master switch: possible roles in type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol. 1999 Jul;277(1 Pt 1):E1-10. PMID: 10409121. 27. Andrew Chevallier. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. 

Wist E, Risberg T. Topical capsaicin in treatment of hyperalgesia, allodynia and dysesthetic pain caused by malignant tumour infiltration of the skin. Acta Oncol 1993;32(3):343.  

Wolvetang EJ, Larm JA, Moutsoulas P, et al. Apoptosis induced by inhibitors of the plasma membrane NADH-oxidase involves Bcl-2 and calcineurin. Cell Growth Differ 1996;7:1315-1325.  

Yeoh KG, Kang JY, Yap I, et al. Chili protects against aspirin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury in humans. Dig Dis Sci. 1995;40:580-583. 

Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Drapeau V, Dionne I, Doucet E, Suzuki M, Tremblay A. Effects of red pepper on appetite and energy intake. Br J Nutr. 1999 Aug;82(2):115-23. PMID: 10743483. 

Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Suzuki M, Tremblay A. Effects of red pepper added to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals on energy metabolism and substrate utilization in Japanese women. Br J Nutr. 1998 Dec;80(6):503-10. PMID: 10211048. 

Yoshitani SI, Tanaka T, Kohno H, Takashima S. Chemoprevention of azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by dietary capsaicin and rotenone. Int J Oncol. 2001;19(5):929-939.  

Zhang WY, Li Wan Po A. The effectiveness of topically applied capsaicin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1994;46:517-522. 

Zhang J, Nagasaki M, Tanaka Y, Morikawa S. Capsaicin inhibits growth of adult T-cell leukemia cells. Leuk Res. 2003 Mar;27(3):275-83.

Huang W., Cheang WS, Wang X, Lei L, Liu Y, Ma KY, Zheng F, Huang Y, Chen ZY. Capsaicinoids but not their analogue capsinoids lower plasma cholesterol and possess beneficial vascular activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Aug 20;62(33):8415-20. doi: 10.1021/jf502888h. Epub 2014 Aug 11.

Well, there you have it. This list will grow as I come across other studies. If you hear of any, please do email me at:

I hope this webpage has been useful to you.
Quillin, Patrick. (1998). The healing power of cayenne pepper. N. Canton, OH: The Leader Co., Inc.